360 Degree Orbital Beltway Cities

M-60 Motorway around Manchester – Source: tameside.gov.uk

The following list identifies those cities around the globe that are circled by a full orbital expressway system (a.k.a. beltway, ring road, perimeter highway, loop, beltline etc.) encircling the city 360 degrees. Inland cities have an advantage for being included over coastal ones because the coastline makes it difficult, if not impossible, to encircle the city with an expressway.

While in a number of cases a singularly numbered or named roadway completes the orbital trip around the city, in many cases identified below, it takes several different roads to complete the task. To be included, the orbital must be limited access and not pass through or close to the central business district.  Also provided is the length of each orbital expressway, if it is known.

As always, any additional information, corrections, or revisions are most welcome to make this post as current as possible.

Existing/Soon to be completed full Orbitals

  • Abilene, TX: I-20, US 89/277, and Loop 322
  • Ahmadabad, India: Sardar Patel Ring Road = 47 miles

Ahmedabad Ring Road – Source: en.wikipedia.org

  • Amsterdam, Netherlands: A10 (Ring Amsterdam) = 20 miles
  • Ann Arbor, MI: I-94, US 23, and M14* = 24 miles
  • Ankara, Turkey: Otoyol 20 = 68 miles
  • Antwerp, Belgium: R1 (Ring Antwerpen)
  • Appleton, WI: I-41 and WI441 = 22 miles
  • Athens, GA: Loop 10 (Athens Perimeter Highway) = 19 miles
  • Atlanta, GA: I-485 (Perimeter Highway) = 64 miles
  • Augusta, GA: I-20 and I-520 (Bobby Jones Expressway) = 34 miles
  • Baltimore, MD: I-695 (Baltimore Beltway) = 51 miles
  • Bangalore, India: Outer Ring Road = 37 miles
  • Bangkok, Thailand: T9 (Kanchana Phisek Road – Outer Ring Road)
  • Beijing, China (5):
    1. Third Ring Road
    2. Fourth Ring Road = 40.6 miles
    3. CH550 (Fifth Ring Road) = 61 miles
    4. G4501 (Sixth Ring Road) = 140 miles
    5. G95 (Seventh Ring Road) = 584 miles
  • Berlin, Germany: A10 (Berliner Ring) = 122 miles

Berliner ring – Source: en.wikipedia.org

  • Bilbao, Spain: Autopista M-8, A-8, and N-637
  • Birmingham, England, UK: M5, M6, M40, and M42 (Box Orbital)
  • Bordeaux, France: A630/N230 (Rocade de Bordeaux)
  • Breda, Netherlands: A16, A27, and A59
  • Budapest, Hungary: M0 Motorway = 67 miles when completed
  • Burgos, Spain: Autopista 30 (Circumvalacion Burgos)
  • Cairo, Egypt: Ring Road = 45 miles
  • Calgary, AB, Canada: Alberta 201 (Stoney Trail/Ring Road) = 62 miles when completed in 2021
  • Campinas, Brazil: SP065, SP083, and SP348 (Rodoanel Dom Pedro)
  • Changchun, China: G1 and G0-102 (Changchunraocheng Expressway)
  • Changsha, China: G0401 (Changsharaocheng Expressway)
  • Charlotte, NC: I-485 = 67.6 miles
  • Charleroi, Belgium: R33
  • Chengdu, China (3):
    1. Third Ring Road
    2. G4201 (Chengduraocheng Expressway)
    3. G4202 (Chengdu #2 Raocheng Expressway)
  • Chifeng, China: G16 and G45
  • Chongqing, China (3):
    1. G50, G65, and G75
    2. G5001 (Chongqingraocheng Expressway)
    3. Third under development
  • Cincinnati, OH: I-275 (Circle Freeway) = 87 miles
  • Cologne, Germany: A1, A3, and A4 = 31 miles
  • Columbia, SC: I-20, I-26, and I-77 = 37 miles
  • Columbus, OH: I-270 (Outerloop or Jack Nicklaus Freeway)= 55 miles
  • Cordoba, Argentina: A019 (Ave. de Circunvalacion) = 33 miles when completed
  • Dallas, TX: I-20, I-635 (LBJ Freeway), I-35E, and Loop 12/408 = 63 miles or alternatively I-20, I-635, and TX161 = 68 miles
  • Datong, China: G55 and G5501 (Datongraocheng Expressway)
  • Denver, CO: I-25, I-70, I-76, I-225, I-270, and E470 = 58 miles
  • Des Moines, IA: I-35/80, US 65, and IA5 = 48 miles
  • Dongguan: Huancheng Road
  • Dortmund, Germany: E34, E37, and E41
  • Dusseldorf, Germany: E31, E35, A44, and A46
  • Eau Claire, WI: I-94, US 53, and WI29 = 43 miles
  • Edmonton, AB, Canada: Loop 216 (Henday Drive) = 48 miles

Alberta 216/Hendry Drive in Edmonton: Source: en.wikipedia.org

  • Fayetteville, NC: I-95 and I-295 (under construction) = 52 miles
  • Fort Wayne, IN: I-69 and I-469 = 50 miles
  • Fort Worth, TX: I-20 and I-820 = 48 miles
  • Foshan, China: S82 (Ring Line)
  • Frankfurt, Germany: A3, A5, and A661
  • Fuzhou, China: S1531 (Fuzhouraocheng Expressway) and Third Ring Expressway
  • Green Bay, WI: I-41, I-43, and WI172 = 24 miles
  • Greensboro, NC: I-840 (under construction), I-73, and I-85 (Urban Loop) = 44 miles when completed

Greensboro Urban Loop – Source: en.wikipedia.org

  • Guadalajara, Mexico: Anillo Perifirico, M90D, and M23
  • Guangzhou, China: G1501 (Second Ring Expressway)
  • Guilin, China: G72, G65, and G2201 (Guilinraocheng Expressway)
  • Guiyang, China: G6001 (Guiyangraocheng Expressway)
  • Hamilton, ON, Canada: 403, QEW, Lincoln Parkway, and Red Hill Valley Parkway
  • Hampton Roads, VA: I-64 and I-664 (Hampton Roads Beltway) = 56 miles
  • Handan, China: G22 (Handanraocheng Expressway)
  • Hangzhou, China: G2501 (Hangzhouraocheng Expressway)
  • Harbin, China: G1001 (Harbinraocheng Expressway)
  • Harrisburg, PA: I-76 (PA Turnpike), I-81, I-83, I-283 (Capital Beltway), and US 15 = 38 miles
  • Hohhot, China: G7 and G0601 (Hohhotraocheng Expressway)
  • Houston, TX (2):
    1. I-610 (Inner Loop) = 38 miles
    2. Beltway 8 (Sam Houston Tollway/Freeway) = 88 miles
    3. TX 99 (Grand Parkway) = 184 miles when completed

I-610 and TX-8 (Sam Houston Tollway) – Source: en.wikipedia.org

  • Huizhou, China: G25, S20, and S21
  • Hyderabad, India: Nehru Outer Ring Road = 98 miles
  • Indianapolis, IN: I-465 = 53 miles
  • Jacksonville, FL: I-295 = 61 miles
  • Jilin, China: G1201 (Jilinraocheng Expressway) and G12
  • Jinan, China: G2001 (Jinanraocheng Expressway)
  • Johannesburg, South Africa: N1, N3, and N12 (Bypass) = 50 miles
  • Kansas City, MO: I-435 = 83 miles
  • Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: MRR2, KESAS, E1 and E6
  • Kunshan, China: Middle Ring Expressway
  • Lahore, Pakistan: Lahore Ring Road = 53 miles
  • Lakeland, FL: I-4 and FL570 = 38 miles
  • Lansing, MI: I-69, I-96, and US 127= 32 miles
  • Laval, QC, Canada: AR-13, AR-40, and AR-640
  • Lawrence, MA: I-495, I-93, and MA213 = 17 miles
  • Lehigh Valley, PA (Allentown-Bethlehem): I-78, US 22, and PA 33 = 36 miles
  • Leipzig, Germany: E49, E51, and A38
  • Lille, France: A25, A22, N227, and D652
  • Little Rock, AR: I-30, I-40, I-430, and I-440 = 45 miles
  • Liuzhou, China: G72, G78, and S31
  • Ljubljana, Slovenia: A1, A2, and H3 (Ring Road) = 18 miles
  • London, England, UK: M25 (London Orbital Motorway) = 122 miles
  • Los Angeles, CA: I-5, I-210, I-405 (San Diego Freeway), and I-605 = 118 miles
  • Louisville, KY: I-64, I-71, I-264 Patterson Expressway), and I-265 (Snyder Freeway) = 63 miles
  • Lubbock, TX: Loop 289 = 26 miles
  • Macon, France: A6, A40, A406
  • Madrid, Spain (3):
    1. Autopsista M-30 (Circunvalacion) = 20 miles
    2. Autopista M-40 (Distributor) = 39.3 miles
    3. Autopsista M-2, Autopsista M-40, and Autopsist M-50 = 53 miles

M-30 and M-40 around Madrid – Source: en.wikipedia.org

  • Mainz, Germany: A60, A643, and A671
  • Manchester, England, UK: M60 (Ring Motorway) = 36 miles
  • Mannheim, Germany: A6 and A61
  • Mesa, Arizona: Loop 101 and Loop 202 = 48 miles
  • Milan, Italy: A50, A51, and A52
  • Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN: I-494 and I-694 = 73.8 miles
  • Minsk, Belarus (2):
    1. Minsk Beltway = 35 miles
    2. M1 and M14
  • Montreal, QC, Canada: AR-20, AR-30, and AR-40
  • Moscow, Russia: Fourth Ring Road (MKAD) = 68 miles
  • Nagoya, Japan: 302 (Nagoya Beltway)
  • Nanchang, China: G6001 (Nanchangraocheng Expressway) and G60
  • Nanjing, China: G2501 (Nanjingraocheng Expressway)
  • Nanning, China: G5101 (Outer Ring Expressway), G80, and G7201 (Nanningraocheng Expressway)
  • Nanyang, China: G8311 (Nanyanberaocheng Expressway), G55 , and S83
  • Nashville, TN: I-24, I-40, I-440, and TN155 (Briley Parkway) = 32 miles
  • Newark, NJ: I-78, I-95, Garden State Parkway, and NJ3
  • New York City, NY-NJ: I-287, I-678, NY/NJ440, and Belt Parkway = 176 miles
  • Ningbo, China: G1501 (Ningboraocheng Expressway)
  • Oldenburg, Germany: A28, A29, and A293
  • Orlando, FL: I-4, FL-417 (Central Florida Greeneway), and FL-429 = 91 miles
  • Paris, France (2):
    1. Boulevard Peripherique = 22 miles
    2. A86 (Super Peripherique) = 49.8 miles
  • Philadephia, PA-NJ: I-95, I-276 (PA Turnpike), I-295, I-476, and US 322 = 120 miles
  • Phoenix, AZ: I-10, Loop 101 and Loop 202 = 92 miles
  • Pittsburgh, PA: I-70, I-76 (PA Turnpike), and I-79= 125 miles
  • Porto, Portugal: A1, A20, and A44 (Via Cintura Interna – CRIP) = 39 miles
  • Quad Cities, IL-IA: I-74, I-80, and I-280 = 54 miles
  • Quanzhou, China: G1502 (Quanzhouhuancheng Expressway) and G15
  • Raleigh, NC (2):
    1. I-40 and I-440 (Beltline) = 24 miles
    2. I-540/NC540 (Triangle Expressway) = 70.8 miles when completed
  • Rennes, France: N136 (Rocade) = 18.5 miles
  • Richmond, VA: I-64, I-295, I-895, and VA288 = 63 miles
  • Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: SA-500 (Ring Road)
  • Rome, Italy: A90 (Circonvallazione) = 42.4 miles
  • Rotterdam, Netherlands: E19, E25, A4, and A15
  • San Antonio, TX (2): 
  • I-410 (Loop 410/Connally Loop) = 49 miles
  • Loop 1604 = 94.4 miles when completed
  • Santiago, Chile: A70 (Américo Vespucio Expressway) = 40.1 miles when completed
  • Sao Paulo, Brazil: SP021 (Rodoanel Mario Covas) = 110 miles when completed

SP-021 around Sao Paulo – Source: en.wikipedia.org

  • Saskatoon, SK, Canada: Circle Drive = 17 miles
  • Sendai, Japan: Sendai Road and Tohoku Exxpressway
  • Seoul, South Korea: SK100 (Seouloegwaksunhwan Expressway) = 79.3 miles
  • Seville, Spain: Autovia SE-40 = 48.2 miles when completed
  • Shanghai, China (4):
    1. Inner Ring Road
    2. Middle Ring Road
    3. S-20 (Outer Ring Expressway)
    4. G1501/S-20 (Shanghairaochen Expressway)
  • Shenyang, China: G1501 (Shenyangraocheng Expressway)
  • Sioux Falls, SD: I-29, I-90, and I-229 = 23 miles
  • Songyuan, China: G45 and G1202 (Songyuanraocheng Expressway)
  • Springfield, MO: I-44, US 60, US 65, and MO360 = 36 miles
  • St. Louis, MO: I-270 and I-255 = 81.4 miles
  • St. Petersburg, Russia: A118 = 88 miles

A-118 around St. Petersburg – Source: en.wikipedia.org

  • Texarkana, AR/TX: I-30, I-49, and I-369 (The Loop) = 21.4 miles
  • Tokyo, Japan: C2 (Central Circular) and B (Bayshore) = 40 miles
  • Toulouse, France: A61, A62, and A620 (Perpherique) = 21.7 miles
  • Tyler, TX: TX-49 and I-20: approx. 60 miles when completed
  • Valladolid, Spain: Autopista 62 and Autovia VA-30 (Ronda Exterior)
  • Washington, DC: I-95 and I-495 (Capital Beltway) = 64 miles

Washington’s Capital Beltway – Source: en.wikipedia.org

  • Wenzhou, China: G10, G-15, and G1513
  • Wichita, KS: I-35, I-135, I-235, and KS96 = 39 miles
  • Winchester, VA: I-81 and VA37 = 15 miles
  • Winnipeg, MB, Canada: Perimeter Highway = 56 miles
  • Wuhan, China (2):
    1. Third Ring Line = 57 miles
    2. G50 and G70
  • Xi’an, China: G3001, (Xianraocheng Expressway)
  • Xingtai, China: G2516 and G-4
  • Xuzchou, China: G2513, G-3, and G-30
  • Yinchuan, China: G0601 (Yincuanraocheng Expressway) and G6
  • Zaragoza, Spain: Autovia Z-40 = 21.1 miles
  • Zhengzhou, China: G3001(Zhengzhouraocheng Expressway), G630, and G4

* Though surrounded by freeways, one cannot take westbound I-94 to eastbound M-14 and vice versa.

Planned full Orbitals – longer term to completion

  • Birmingham, AL: I-459, I-59, and future I-422 = 94.3 miles when completed by 2054
  • Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX: Loop 9
  • Denver, CO: E470 Beltway
  • Lincoln, NE: I-80, US 77 and Lincoln Beltway = 43 miles
  • Prague, Czech Republic: D0 Motorway = 48 or 56 miles depending on route chosen
  • Sofia, Bulgaria: 18 (Ring Road) = 40 miles when completed
  • Tokyo, Japan: C3 (Tokyo Gaikan Expressway)
  • Warsaw, Poland: S2, S7, s8, and S17 (Express Ring Road)
  • Winston-Salem, NC: I-40, and I-274 = 45 miles when completed


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Favorite dystopian literature and films – update #2

Dystopian literature is my favorite genre of fiction and dystopian films are one of my top choices in cinema. Below, I have listed my favorite classic (25 years or older) and modern (less 25 years old) dystopian stories. They are followed by my favorite dystopian films. As time goes by, I will update and refresh these lists to represent my rankings at the time and add yet unseen or unread tales to the list.

These books, short stories, and films portray the darker aspects of humanity, whether it be misogyny, racism, fascism, nationalism, theocracy, oligarchy, ethnic cleansing, despair, totalitarianism, nuclear apocalypse, mind control, technological Armageddon, environmental degradation, ravages of war, alien invasion, and a myriad of other dreadful and desperate futures. Far too often one can read and see vivid examples from today represented in these works of art. A primary reason I am fascinated by the genre is the uncanny ability of these authors to highlight our human weaknesses and show us the frightful path our actions could lead us down if left unchecked.
Any suggested additions to my list are welcome, as I always enjoy a well written or produced dystopian story whether it is depicted in print, digitally, or on the big screen.

Favorite classic dystopian books read to date

  1. The Stone Raft (1986) by Jose Saramago
  2. On the Beach (1957) by Nevil Shute
  3. Fahrenheit 451 (1953) by Ray Bradbury
  4. The Handmaid’s Tale (1985) by Margaret Atwood
  5. We (1921) by Yevgeny Zamyatin
  6. Frost and Fire (1946) a short story by Ray Bradbury
  7. Player Piano (1952) by Kurt Vonnegut – added on 11/2/17
  8. It Cant Happen Here (1935) by Sinclair Lewis
  9. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep (1968) by Philp K. Dick – added on 10/27/17
  10. The Pedestrian (1951) a short story by Ray Bradbury
  11. The Minority Report (1956) – a short story by Philip K. Dick
  12. The City and the Stars (1956) by Sir Arthur Clarke – added on 12/22/17
  13. Harrison Bergeron (1961) – a short story by Kurt Vonnegut
  14. The Iron Heel (1908) by Jack London
  15. The New Utopia (1891) a short story by Jerome K. Jerome
  16. 1984 (1949) by George Orwell
  17. 2BR02B (1962) – a short story by Kurt Vonnegut
  18. Brave New World (1931) by Aldous Huxley
  19. Examination Day (1958) a short story by Henry Sleaser – added 10/18/17
  20. Repent Harlequin, Said the Ticktockman (1965) – a short story by Harlan Ellison
  21. Billennium (1962) a short story by J. G. Ballard
  22. The Lottery (1948) a short story by Shirley Jackson
  23. The Trial (1914) by Franz Kafka

Favorite modern dystopian literature

  1. Sea of Rust (2017) by C. Robert Cargill – added 11/5/17
  2. The Power (2017) by Naomi Alderman – added 1/11/18
  3. The Marrow Thieves by Cherie Dimaline – added 12/8/17
  4. The Perfect Match (2012) a short story by Ken Liu
  5. Just Do It (2006) a short story by Heather Lindsey
  6. Is This Your Day to Join the Revolution (2009) a short story by Genevieve Valentine
  7. Resistance (2008) a short story by Tobias S. Buckell
  8. Red Card (2013) a short story by S.L. Gilbow
  9. The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas (1997) a short story by Ursula K. Le Guin
  10. Civilization (2007) a short story by Vylar Kaftan

Favorite dystopian movies seen to date

  1. Oblivion and Blade Runner 2049 (tied)
  2. Wall-E
  3. Interstellar
  4. Arrival
  5. Terminator 2, Judgment Day
  6. Mad Max: Fury Road
  7. War of the World’s (1953)
  8. Pleasantville
  9. The Day The Earth Stood Still
  10. The Minority Report
  11. The Lorax
  12. 12 Monkeys
  13. The Terminal
  14. Soylent Green
  15. Upside Down
  16. The Postman
  17. Metropolis – added 10/16/17
  18. Mad Max
  19. The Matrix
  20. Her
  21. The Day After
  22. Planet of the Apes
  23. Hunger Games, Catching Fire – added 11/5/17
  24. Independence Day
  25. The Hunger Games – added 11/17/17
  26. Downsizing – added 1/5/18
  27. 9  1/13/18
  28. Blade Runner – added 12/30/17
  29. On the Beach (1959) – added 10/15/17
  30. V is for Vendetta 
  31. The Running Man
  32. Batman
  33. 1984
  34. Terminator
  35. Logan’s Run added 10/26/17
  36. Lord of the Flies
  37. Rise of Planet of the Apes
  38. Back to the Future II
  39. Westworld
  40. Cloud Atlas
  41. Divergent
  42. i Robot
  43. The Lego Movie
  44. Escape from NY
  45. Total Recall
  46. War of the Worlds (2005)
  47. The Day after Tomorrow
  48. World War Z
  49. Waterworld
  50. Ender’s Game
  51. Looper
  52. Americathon (the opening scene)
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Driving and striving to survive a broken ‘Merica

I will never, ever look at a recreational vehicle, van, motor home, or campground the same way again. Not since reading Jessica Bruder’s engrossing, informative, and heartbreaking new book entitled Nomadland. I have long imagined, envied, and eagerly anticipated my chance at plodding the highways and byways of North America in a recreational vehicle with no schedule, no deadlines, and no cares. But, her book has pulled the wool from my eyes to reveal what is truly happening to a significant segment of the population in our society.

Sure there are retired wanderers crisscrossing the nation, but in more recent years they have been joined along the byways by a growing nomadic tribe of less fortunate folks who are simply trying to eek out a living by “workamping” and “vandwelling” from place to place throughout the year. These economic migrants, often due to no fault of their own, see residing on the road as their last vestige of maintaining control and personal pride amidst an increasingly dystopian economic situation that rewards only the rich, the dishonest, and the damn lucky. To many of them, the so-called American dream is but a cruel hoax perpetrated on us all.

Nor will I ever feel the same excitement when a package (including this book) arrives from Amazon. For many of these same folks are working long, tiresome, backbreaking temporary labor in massive warehouses to assure our compulsive consumerism thrives for yet another quarterly report to shareholders.

In America, many millions are but one paycheck, one illness, one job loss, one missed payment, or one divorce away from becoming an unfortunate and potentially morbid statistic. While some are driven into homelessness, others, such as those documented in Ms. Bruder’s amazing book, turn to their motor vehicles for hope and economic salvation. Instead of becoming “homeless,” they chose to become “houseless,” by living in their car, van, RV, motor home, or similar vehicle.

I was impressed how the subjects of this book were able to maintain their sense humor through the despair. Aside from being a coping mechanism, it also led to some funny and ‘punny’ nicknames for the van dwellings described in Nomadland. Nicknames like “The Squeeze Inn,” “Van Go,” “Vanna White,” and “Van Halen” made me chuckle while riding the book.

Steibeck’s The Grapes of Wrath documented the hardships of the Depression-era through his eloquent fiction describing the Joad family legacy from Oklahoma to California. Today, Ms. Bruder has skillfully articulated the 21st Century financial distress and suffering facing a group of fellow citizens who live on the razor’s edge of basic survival.

Some may brag and boast about our nation like it’s a modern-day Utopia, when honest-to-goodness reality is that the United States has largely turned its back on the needy, including these unfortunate folks. The thing is, they don’t want our pity. All they want are the so-called opportunities that are constantly being preached at us via the propaganda machine in DC, the media, and elsewhere.

Perhaps Green Day summarizes the suffering best in their song, Boulevard of Broken Dreams

There are so many amazing stories and quotes in Nomadland that it would be impossible to list them here, but a few snippets are important to give you a mental image of the book.

“The last free places in America is a parking lot.” Page xiv

“This is a whole band of housing refugees.” Quote from vandweller Bob Apperley on Page 56

“This place is freaking crazy [Addicted to Deals]. It is like a college dorm room and an abandoned Kmart had a forbidden lovechild, painted it Pepto-Bismol pink, and gave it a phrase for a name.” Page 120

[Quartzsite, Arizona] “one of America’s most bizarre and seriously demented places.” Page 125

“I’ve encountered nothing in 15,000 miles of travel that disgusted and appalled me so much as this American addiction to make-believe.” Quote from author James Rorty on Page 164.

“For many nomads I met, missing teeth were the badge of poverty of which they were most ashamed. It’s sad but not surprising that teeth have become a status symbol in a country where more than one in three citizens lack dental coverage.” Page 174

“Is this the evolution of the former middle class? Are we seeing the emergence of a modern hunter-gatherer class?” Quote from vandweller Kat Valentino on Page 176

“The sharing economy — the step-on-the-back-of-the-little-people economy’s arrived.” Quote by vandweller Peter Fox on Page 217.

“After all, millions of Americans are wrestling with the impossibility of a traditional middle-class existence. In homes across the country, kitchen tables are strewn with unpaid bills…These indignities underscore a larger question. when do impossible choices start to tear people — a society — apart?” Pages 246-247

Better yet, I strongly and whole-heartedly recommend reading Nomadland. It is a watershed literary effort that will certainly stand the test of time and serve as a testament of whether Americans opened their eyes to reality or preferred to let the American dream remain nothing more than an empty platitude. Remember folks, “There but for the grace of God, go I.”


Here are some resources on workamping and vandwelling from the internet:

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Geography/variety of dropped objects on New Year’s Eve

Traverse City Cherry Drop – Source: michigan.org

It appears that dropping various objects is the vogue thing to do in the United States for New Year’s Eve. Here’s a list of the variety and geography of the items being dropped for 2018. This list only includes those being dropped (not raised) outdoors at midnight.

As can be gleaned from the list, a lot of places in Pennsylvania like to drop objects for the holiday, though Pennsylvania wins for the widest variety of things being dropping, including items like yellow britches, bologna, and stuffed/replica animals. Balls are the most common form of celebratory dropping throughout the county. In many cases, the items being dropped represents something important to the local economy, folklore, culture, or history – bologna in Lebanon, PA or a beach ball in Panama City, FL for example.

Any additions, updates, and/or corrections to the list are appreciated.


Raleigh, North Carolina


Shippensburg, Pennsylvania


  • Cornelia, Georgia
  • Manhattan, Kansas


  • Austin, Texas
  • Binghamton, New York
  • Buffalo, New York
  • Charlottesville, Virginia
  • Cheyenne, Wyoming
  • Destin, Florida
  • Fairhope, Alabama
  • Fort Lauderdale, Florida
  • Fort Smith, Arkansas
  • Gatlinburg, Tennessee
  • Grand Rapids, Michigan
  • Hamburg, New York
  • Kalamazoo, Michigan
  • Knoxville, Tennessee
  • Kokomo, Indiana
  • Ludington, Michigan
  • Marquette, Michigan
  • McAllen, Texas
  • Media, Pennsylvania
  • Muncie, Indiana
  • New Carlisle, Ohio
  • New York City, New York
  • North Tonawanda, New York
  • Orchard Park, New York
  • Royal Oak, Michigan
  • Tulsa, Oklahoma
  • Twin Falls, Idaho
  • White Plains, New York
  • Wilson, New York
  • Yellow Springs, Ohio

Bayer Aspirin

Myerstown, Pennsylvania

Beach Ball

  • Bangor, Maine
  • Ocean City, Maryland
  • Panama City, Florida

Bear (stuffed)

Boyertown, Pennsylvania

Beaver (stuffed)

Beaverton, Pennsylvania


Kennebunk, Maine


Lebanon, Pennsylvania


Prescott, Arizona

Box Huckleberry

New Bloomfield, Pennsylvania


Maysville, Pennsylvania


Carlisle, Pennsylvania

Canal Boat

Liverpool, Pennsylvania


Cornwall, Pennsylvania


Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin


Cedar Falls, Iowa

Cheese Wedge

Plymouth, Wisconsin


  • Traverse City, Michigan
  • Sister Bay, Wisconsin

Cherry Blossom Ball

Macon, Georgia

Chili Pepper

Las Cruces, New Mexico

Chicken (stuffed)

Gainesville, Georgia


  • Richland, Pennsylvania
  • Womelsdorf, Pennsylvania

Coal to Diamond

  • Shamokin, Pennsylvania
  • Wiles-Barre, Pennsylvania

Cow (wooden)

Blain, Pennsylvania


Easton, Maryland


Des Plaines, Illinois

Disco Ball

Baltimore, Maryland


Hagerstown, Maryland

Duck Decoy

Harve de Grace, Maryland


Eastover, North Carolina


New Orleans, Louisiana

French Fry

Ickesburg, Pennsylvania

Giant “D”

Detroit, Michigan

Goat (stuffed)

Falmouth, Pennsylvania

Golf Ball

Hilton Head Island, South Carolina


South Lake Tahoe, California


Temecula, California


  • Memphis, Tennessee
  • Niagara Falls, New York


Black Creek, North Carolina

Hemlock Tree

Halifax, Pennsylvania


Fayetteville, Arkansas

Ice Cream Cake

McVeytown, Pennsylvania


Indianapolis, Indiana


Winder, Georgia
East Petersburg, Pennsylvania


Frederick, Maryland (home of Francis Scott Key)

Liberty Bell Replica

Allentown, Pennsylvania


Hummelstown, Pennsylvania

Moon Pie

Mobile, Alabama


Kennett Square, Pennsylvania

Music Note

Nashville, Tennessee

Muskrat (stuffed)

Princess Anne, Maryland


Bartlesville, Oklahoma


  • Miami, Florida
  • Orange County, California
  • Orlando, Florida


Hanover, Pennsylvania


Atlanta, Georgia


Dothan, Alabama


Fredericksburg, Virginia


Bethlehem, Pennsylvania


Pensacola, Florida


Dillsburg, Pennsylvania


Sarasota, Florida

Pine Cone

Flagstaff, Arizona

Ping Pong Balls

Strasburg, Pennsylvania

Popcorn Ball

  • Chagrin Falls, Ohio
  • Marion, Ohio

Possum (stuffed)

Tallapoosa, Georgia


Boise, Idaho

Potato Chips

Lewistown, Pennsylvania


York, Pennsylvania


Eastport, Maine


Elmore, Ohio


Palmyra, Pennsylvania


Duncannon, Pennsylvania


Newville, Pennsylvania

Sprint Car

Port Royal, Pennsylvania


  • Roanoke, Virginia
  • South Hill, Virginia


Harrisburg, Pennsylvania


Tucson, Arizona

Two (2) of Clubs

Show Low, Arizona


Port Clinton, Ohio


Vincennes, Indiana


Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania

Yellow Britches

Lisburn, Pennsylvania


Posted in branding, cities, civics, Communications, culture, entertainment, family, fun, geography, history, holiday, placemaking | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Favorites of 2017

Source: openclipart.org

One of my New Years resolutions for 2017 was to read more classic literature and watch classic films I have missed in the past. As you can see form this list, I have accomplished that, partially in thanks to TCM (Turner Classic Movies), as these are just a partial tally the books read/films seen.  My plan is to continue this trend in 2018 and beyond. During this process I have found that dystopian literature and film are favorites, as is film noir.

The only disappointment has been that it is increasingly hard to find alternative, indie, and rock music that I like. Granted, the free time available to search is less and the resources are fewer and farther between than they once were. I will continue to pursue this quest and look forward to new albums from some of my favorite artists arriving in 2018.

Happy New Year to all and I wish everyone peace and good will in 2018!

Films Released and Seen in 2017

  1. Blade Runner 2049
  2. Lady Bird
  3. Dunkirk
  4. The Zookeeper’s Wife
  5. Young Karl Marx
  6. Battle of the Sexes
  7. Guardians of the Galaxy 2

Classic Films First Seen in 2017

  1. Double Indemnity
  2. Brief Encounter
  3. Three Faces of Eve
  4. An Affair to Remember
  5. Call Northside 777
  6. Dial M For Murder
  7. The Shop Around the Corner
  8. The Defiant Ones
  9. Casablanca
  10. Lifeboat
  11. Singing in the Rain
  12. West Side Story

Recent Films First Seen in 2017

  1. The Way Back
  2. Edge of Seventeen
  3. Loving
  4. The African Doctor
  5. The Help
  6. 100 Metros
  7. The Nice Guys
  8. Sully
  9. The Man Who Knew Infinity
  10. Comet

TV Drama

  1. The Crown (Netflix)
  2. Madam Secretary (CBS)

TV Comedy

  1. Superstore (NBC)
  2. The Goldbergs (ABC)
  3. Unbreakable Kimmie Schmidt (Netflix)

Books Published in 2017 (fiction)

  1. Sea of Rust
  2. The Marrow Thieves

Books Published in 2017 (non-fiction)

  1. Nomadland
  2. Stingray Afternoons
  3. Patagonian Road
  4. Saving Arcadia

Previously Published Books First Read in 2017 (fiction)

  1. The Stone Raft
  2. On The Beach
  3. Fahrenheit 451
  4. The Handmaid’s Tale
  5. We
  6. Frost and Fire (short story)
  7. Player Piano
  8. It Can’t Happen Here
  9. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep
  10. The Pedestrian (short story)

Previously Published Books First Read in 2017 (non-fiction)

  1. Vroom With A View
  2. Vroom by the Sea
  3. If Venice Dies
  4. Sixty Degrees North
  5. Homage to Catalonia
  6. Everything That Remains: A Memoir by the Minimalists
  7. A Dog’s Purpose
  8. The New Utopia
  9. Astoria
  10. Reimagining Detroit

New Album Released in 2017

  1. Visions of a Life – Wolf Alice
  2. Songs of Experience  – U2
  3. Lindsey Buckingham & Christine McVie
  4. Life After Youth – Land of Talk

Single/Song Released in 2017

  1. Loving by Land of Talk
  2. Don’t Delete the Kisses by Wolf Alice
  3. Planet Hunter by Wolf Alice
  4. Get Out of Your Own Way by U2
  5. Lay Down for Free by Buckingham and McVie
  6. You’re the Best Thing About Me by U2
  7. Sleeping Round the Corner by Buckingham and McVie
Posted in advertising, art, book reviews, books, branding, cartoons, Communications, culture, entertainment, film, fun, history, internet, libraries, literature, movies, music, music reviews, reading, Science, Science fiction, Television, theaters, writing | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Fictional cartoon cities and towns

Bedrock – Source: en.wikipedia.org

Here’s my list of cities and towns from well-known, popular, and classic cartoons. If there are any I am missing, please feel free to send suggestions along.

  • Aberdale – Clarence
  • Adventure Bay – Paw Patrol
  • Anytown – the ZhuZhus
  • Arlen – King of the Hill
  • Aron City – Johnny Bravo
  • Autobot City – Transformers
  • Balsa City – Scaredy Squirrel
  • Bayport – The Hardy Boys
  • Bedrock – The Flintstones
  • Bikini Bottom – Spongebob
  • Bluffington – Doug
  • Bubbletucky – Bubble Guppies
  • Cape Suzette – TaleSpin
  • Capital City – Underdog
  • Capitaleville – Captain Biceps
  • Coolsville – Scooby-Do
  • Cosmopolis – Sally Bollywood, Super Detective
  • Danville – Phineas and Ferb
  • Dimmsdale – The Fairly OddParents
  • DingaLing Springs – Numb Chucks
  • Duckburg – Duck Tales
  • Dukesberry – Eight Crazy Nights
  • Elmore – The Amazing World of Gumball
  • Ellwood City – Arthur
  • Fair City – WordGirl
  • Freeland – Glenn Martin, DDS
  • Friendly Falls – Sunny Day
  • Frostbite Falls – Rocky and Bullwinkle
  • Genius Grove – Dexter’s Laboratory
  • Gongmen City – Kung Fu Panda
  • Gotham City – Batman
  • Gravity Falls– Gravity Falls – Thank you, Robert (added 12/20/17)
  • Great Big City – Pinky Dinky Doo
  • Grisham Heights – The Scarecrow
  • Highland – Beavis and Butthead
  • Hillwood – Hey Arnold
  • Inner City  – Fat Albert
  • Jump City – Teen Titans 
  • Langley Falls – American Dad
  • Lawndale – Daria
  • Metro City – Inspector Gadget and Megamind
  • Metropolis – Superman
  • Metroville – The Incredibles
  • Middleton – Kim Possible
  • Miserytown – Jimmy Two-Shoes
  • Monstropolis – Monsters, Inc.
  • Moose Jaw Heights – Atomic Betty
  • Nearburg – Catdog
  • Neo Yokio – Neo Yokio
  • New Holland – Frankenweenie
  • New New York – Futurama
  • Nowhere – Courage the Cowardly Dog
  • Ocean City or Seymour’s Bay – Bob’s Burgers
  • Ocean Shores – Rocket Power
  • Orbit City – The Jetsons
  • OTown – Rocko’s Modern Life
  • Peaceful Pines – Beetlejuice
  • Petropolis – T.U.F.F. Puppy
  • Playa Verde – Dora and Friends: Into the City
  • Porkbelly – Johnny Test
  • Quahog – Family Guy
  • Radiator Springs – Cars
  • Retroville – Jimmy Neutron
  • Riverdale – The Archie Show
  • Royal Woods – The Loud House
  • San Fransokyo – Big Hero 6
  • San Lorenzo – The Adventures of Puss in Boots
  • Santa Cecelia – Coco
  • Sheetrock Hills – Handy Manny
  • Smallville – Superman
  • Sodor – Thomas and Friends 
  • South Park – South Park
  • Splittsboro – Sidekick
  • Spoonerville – Goof Troop
  • Springfield – The Simpsons
  • St. Canard – Darkwing Duck
  • Stoolbend – The Cleveland Show
  • Super Hero City – The Super Hero Squad Show
  • Thneedville – The Lorax
  • Toon Town – Roger Rabbit
  • Townsville – Powderpuff Girls
  • Wayouttatown – The Angry Beavers
  • Whoville – The Grinch Who Stole Christmas
  • Woodcrest – The Boondocks
  • Zootopia – Zootopia 

Sources: en.wikipedia.org and websites for each show

Metroville – Source: disneyinfinity.wikia.com

These place names can be broken down into several categories:

Cities that sound really big:

  • Cosmopolis
  • Great Big City
  • Metropolis
  • Metroville
  • Monstropolis

Towns that sound really small:

  • Bubbletucky
  • Nowhere
  • Peaceful Pines
  • Smallville
  • Wayouttatown

Sarcastic/disgusting names:

  • Bikini Bottom
  • Dimmsdale
  • Ding-a-Ling Springs
  • Frostbite Falls
  • Miserytown
  • Nowhere
  • Porkbelly
  • Stoolbend
  • Townsville

Names related to the cartoon theme:

  • Autobot City
  • Bedrock
  • Genius Grove
  • Monstropolis
  • Orbit City
  • Radiator Springs
  • Sheetrock Hills
  • Toon Town
  • Zootopia

Average and ordinary names:

  • Anytown
  • Hillwood
  • Lawndale
  • Middleton
  • Riverdale
  • South Park
  • Springfield
  • Townsville

    Hillwood – Source heyarnold.wikia.com

    Posted in art, cartoons, Cities, Communications, culture, demographics, diversity, family, fun, geography, history, land use, Maps, movies, pictures, place names, satire, skylines, spatial design, technology, Television, Transportation, Uncategorized, video | Tagged , , , | 7 Comments

    USA/Canada metros with the most Bitcoin ATMs/tellers

    Robocoin ATM machine – Source: images.google.com

    Below is a fascinating list from coinatmradar.com of the cities in the United States and Canada with the most Bitcoin ATMs or tellers. There are currently a total of 1,244 in the USA and 310 in Canada. The most surprising fact is how far down the list some of our largest tech hubs are situated. San Francisco at 14th, Boston at 22nd, Austin at 23rd, and both San Jose and Seattle are not even in the top 25?  That is quite a surprise.

    Given the meteoric rise in value of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Litecoin in the past 12 months, it is likely these numbers will grow dramatically in the near term. Whether it is sustainable or not is the larger question.

    1. New York City = 179
    2. Los Angeles = 149
    3. Chicago = 126
    4. Toronto = 120
    5. Atlanta = 108
    6. Miami = 84
    7. Detroit = 54
    8. Vancouver = 50
    9. Montreal = 49
    10. Washington, DC = 46
    11. Dallas-Fort Worth = 44
    12. Philadelphia = 42
    13. Calgary = 30
    14. San Francisco-Oakland = 29
    15. San Diego = 27
    16. Las Vegas = 26
    17. Houston = 22
    18. Tampa-St. Pete = 21
    19. Phoenix = 20
    20. Ottawa = 16
    21. Denver = 15
    22. Boston = 14
    23. Austin = 13
    24. Sacramento and St. Louis = 12 each
    25. Edmonton = 11
    26. Charlotte, Cleveland, and Nashville = 10 each

    SOURCEhttps://coinatmradar.com (data as of 12/13/17)

    Posted in business, Canada, Cities, commerce, consumerism, deregulation, digital payment systems, geography, infrastructure, internet, product design, Statistics, technology | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment