Largest solar farm in each state, territory, and province


As the solar industry booms, it’s challenging to identify the largest solar farm in each U.S. state, Canadian province, and their territories. This is due to the near constant announcements of upcoming new facilities, as well as the headwinds that they can encounter during financing, site approval, and the regulatory approval process. As a result, the list below tries to traverse the myriad of solar projects to identify those that have been completed, have been approved, or are actually under construction to make the list as up-to-date as possible.

Mammoth Solar Farm under development in Indiana – Source:

The most interesting factoid derived from this list is that the largest solar farm in the two nations is under development in Indiana (not a place one would normally expect) and will provide 1.3 gigawatts of power when fully completed in 2024.

Any additions, corrections, or suggestions are most welcome and the list will be updated from time to time.

ALABAMA: Muscle Shoals Solar Farm – Muscle Shoals (2021) = 227 MW

ALASKA: Willow Solar Farm – Willow (2019) = 1.2 MW, although a 20 MW farm proposed on Kenai Peninsula

ALBERTA: Travers Solar Farm – Lomond (2022) = 465 MW

AMERICAN SAMOA: Ta’u Island Solar Farm (2016) = 1.4 MW

ARIZONA: Agua Caliente Solar Farm – Yuma (2014) = 286 MW

ARKANSAS: Searcy (2021) = 100 MW

BRITISH COLUMBIA: Old Mine Solar Farm – Kimberley (2017) = 1.68 MW

CALIFORNIA: Solar Star Farm – Bakersfield area (2014) = 679 MW

COLORADO: Bighorn Solar Farm – Pueblo (2021) = 300 MW on 1,800 acres

CONNECTICUT: Gravel Pit Solar Farm – (2023) = 120 MW on 485 acres

DELAWARE: Milford Solar Park – Milford (2012) = 15 MW on 80 acres

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Oxon Run Community Solar Farm (2021) = 2.65 MW on 15 acres

FLORIDA: multiple solar farms at 74.9/75 MW including Martin County Solar Farm (2010), Bay Trail Solar Farm in Citrus County, Fort Green Solar Farm in Hardee County, Hildreth Solar Farm in Suwannee County, Bay Ranch Solar Farm in Bay County, Hardeetown Solar Farm in Levy County, St. Cloud Solar Farm in Osceola County, and High Springs Solar Farm in Alachua County.

GEORGIA: Jefferson County (2023) = 260 MW

GUAM: Dan Dan Solar Farm (2015) = 25 MW

HAWAII: Kawailoa Solar Farm – Oahu (2019) = 49 MW on 110 acres

IDAHO: Grandview Solar Farm (2016) = 80 MW; although a 120 MW solar farm is under development near Twin Falls (2023) and 300MW solar farm is proposed in Power County near American Falls on 6,500 acres

ILLINOIS: Double Black Diamond Solar Farm – Sangamon County (2023) 593 MW on 4,100 acres

INDIANA: Mammoth Solar Farm – Starke & Pulaski Counties (2024) = 1.3 GW on 13,000 acres to be completed in three (3) phases

IOWA: Wapello Solar Farm – Wapello (2021) = 127.5 MW on 800 acres, although the Duane Arnold Solar Farm is seeking approval in Palo (2024) = 200 MW on 3,500 acres with another 200 MW planned for the future

KANSAS: West Gardner Solar Farm – Gardner (2023) = 320 MW on 2,000 acres

KENTUCKY: Martin County Solar Farm – Martin County (2024) = 200 MW on 1,200 acres

LOUISIANA: Ventress Solar Farm – Pointe Coupee Parish (2023) = 300 MW on 1,800 acres

MAINE: Farmington Solar Farm (2021) = 76.5 MW on 490 acres

MANITOBA: Fisher Creek Cree Nation Solar Farm (2020) = 1.0 MW

MARYLAND: Great Bay Solar Farm – Somerset = 100 MW, although a 175 MW solar farm is proposed at a former mine in Kitzmiller

MASSACHUSETTS: Happy Hollow Solar Farm – Harvard (2019) = 7.1 MW

MICHIGAN: Assembly Solar Farm – Shiawassee County (2021) = 50 MW with plans to expand to 239MW

MINNESOTA: North Star Solar Farm – Chisago County = 100 MW on 1,000 acres

MONTANA: Cabin Creek Solar Farm – Fallon County (2023) = 150 MW

NEBRASKA: Salt Creek Solar Farm – Lincoln area (2023) = 250 MW on 3,000 acres

NEVADA: Gemini Solar Farm – NW of Las Vegas (2022) = 440 MW with plan to expand to 690 MW

NEW BRUNSWICK: Shediac Solar Farm (2022) = 1.63 MW

NEWFOUNDLAND & LABRADOR: none identified

NEW HAMPSHIRE: Chinook Solar Farm – Fitzwilliam (2022) = 30 MW on 600 acres

NEW JERSEY: Tinton Falls Solar Farm – Tinton Falls (2020) = 19.8 MW

NEW MEXICO: Arroyo Solar Farm – McKinley County (2022) = 150 MW with Atrisco Solar Farm proposed in Rio Rancho (2024) = 400 MW on 3,100 acres

NEW YORK: Byron Solar Farm (2023) = 280 MW on 3,443 acres

NORTH CAROLINA: Fern Solar Farm – Edgecomb County = 100 MW

NORTH DAKOTA: Cannon Ball Solar Farm – Standing Rock (2019) = 300 MW

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES: Fort Simson Solar Farm = 100 kW

NUNAVUT: none identified

NOVA SCOTIA: Berwick Solar Farm (2022) = 4.8 MW

OHIO: Amazon Solar Farm – Hillcrest (2021) = 200 MW

OKLAHOMA: Skeleton Creek Solar Farm – Enid (2023) = 200 MW on 2,500 acres

ONTARIO: Sarnia Solar Farm (2009) = 97 MW on 1,100 acres

OREGON: Gilliam County (2023/4) = 162 MW with Obsidian Solar Farm proposed – Christmas Valley = 400 MW

PENNSYLVANIA: PSU Solar Farm – Franklin County (2020) = 70 MW on 500 acres

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND: Sun Bank Solar Farm – Summerside (2022) = 21 MW on 74 acres

PUERTO RICO: Oriana Solar Farm – Isabella (2016) = 45 MW

QUEBEC: Gabrielle-Bodis Solar Farm – La Prairie (2021) = 8 MW on 37 acres

RHODE ISLAND: Iron Mine Hill Solar Farm – North Smithfield (2021) = 38.4 MW on 420 acres

SASKATCHEWAN: Highfield Solar Farm – Swift Current (2021) = 10 MW

SOUTH CAROLINA: Solvay Solar Farm – Jasper County (2017) = 71.4 MW on 900 acres

SOUTH DAKOTA: Wild Springs Solar Farm – Pennington County (2022) = 128 MW

TENNESSEE: Millington Naval Air Station (2019) = 53 MW on 72 acres

TEXAS: Roadrunner Solar Farm – Upton County (2019) = 497 MW

U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS: St. Croix Solar Farm (2022) = 18 MW

UTAH: Elektron Solar Farm – Rowley (2022) = 80 MW

VERMONT: Coolidge Solar Farm – Ludlow (2018) = 20 MW on 150 acres

VIRGINIA: Spotsylvania Solar Farm – Spotsylvania County (2021) = 484 MW on 6,350 acres

WAKE ISLAND: US Air Force Base Solar Farm 2017) = 750 kW

WASHINGTON: Lund Solar Farm – Klickitat County (2021) = 150 MW on 1,100 acres

WEST VIRGINIA: SunPark Solar Farm – Boone and Lincoln Counties (2024) = 250 MW on 3,000 acres

WISCONSIN: Koshkonong Solar Farm – Dane County (2024) = 300 MW on 4,600 acres

WYOMING: Sweetwater Solar Farm – Green River (2019) = 97.9 MW

YUKON: North Klondike Solar Farm (2021) – 1.86 MW


If solar energy interests you, here are links to a couple of books on the topic available thru*

link – Selling Solar
link – Solar Handbook

*A small commission is earned from purchases that are made using the above links to Amazon. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.


Posted in adaptive reuse, Alternative energy, Canada, civics, climate, climate change, economic development, energy, engineering, environment, geography, history, industry, infrastructure, land use, nature, North America, planning, Renewable Energy, spatial design, States, Statistics, technology, urban planning | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Cities pronounced the same, but spelled differently

Sources: and

The following list identifies cities and towns whose names are pronounced the same, but are spelled differently. Any additions, suggestions, or corrections, are most welcome. Enjoy!

Ashville, OH <-> Asheville, NC

Baalbek, Lebanon <-> Balbec, IN – Thank you, Dan!

Bellville, TX <-> Belleville, ON; IL, MI, and NJ

Berkley, CO and MI <-> Berkeley, CA

Bern, Switzerland <-> Berne, IN

Beverly, MA or Beverly (Hills), CA <-> Beverley, England, UK

Canyon, TX <-> Canon City, CO (pronounced canyon with a tilde above the middle “n”)

Centreville, AL <-> Centerville, OH or IN

Cheboygan, MI <-> Sheboygan, WI

Cheyenne, WY <-> Sheyenne, ND

Clare, MI <-> (Le) Claire, IA or (Eau) Claire, WI

Edinburg, TX <-> Edinburgh, Scotland, UK or Edinburgh, IN

Forest City, NC <-> Forrest City, AR

Greenville, SC or NC <-> Greeneville, TN – added 5/23/22

Haarlem, Netherlands <-> Harlem, GA – Thank you, Dan!

Hannover, Germany <-> Hanover, PA – Thank you, Dan!

Hardin, MY <-> Harden (City), MO

Haslett, MI <-> Haslet, TX

Holladay, UT <-> Holiday (City), OH

Huston, ID <-> Houston, TX

Jonesboro, IN or AR <-> Jonesborough, TN

Kabul, Afghanistan <-> Cabool, MO – Thank you, Dan!

Kalmar, Sweden <-> Calmar, IA – Thank you, Dan!

Karlsborg, Sweden <-> Carlsborg, WA – Thank you, Dan!

Leiden, Netherlands <-> Leyden, NY – Thank you, Dan!

Lewisville, TX <-> Louisville, CO

Limon, Co <-> Lyman, SC

Lindsay, ON <-> Lindsey, OH

Loreto, Italy <-> Loretto, PA – Thank you, Dan!

Lübeck, Germany <-> Lubec, ME – Thank you, Dan!

Mackinac (Island), MI <-> Mackinaw (City), MI

Malden, MA <-> Mauldin, SC

Mannheim, Germany <-> Manheim, PA – Thank you, Dan!

Marlborough, MA <-> (Upper) Marlboro, MD

Medina, Saudi Arabia or OH <-> Medinah, IL

Melville, Australia <-> Mehlville, MO

Middleburg, VA <-> Middleburgh, NY

Milwaukee, WI <-> Milwaukie, OR

Moncton, NB <-> Monkton, MD – Thank you, Dan!

Monterrey, Mexico <-> Monterey, CA – Thank you, Dan!

Montpellier, France <-> Montpelier, VT – Thank you, Dan!

Morehead, KY or Morehead (City), NC <-> Moorhead, MN

Napanee, ON <-> Nappanee, IN

Newberg, OR <-> Newburgh, IN or Newburgh, NY

Owosso, MI <-> Owasso, OK

Paris, France, IL, and TX <-> Perris, CA

Phoenix, AZ <-> Phenix (City), AL

Pierceton, IN <-> Pearceton, QC

Pittsburg, CA and KS <-> Pittsburgh, PA

Reading, PA and UK <-> Redding, CA

Savanna, IL <-> Savannah, GA

Sidney, OH <-> Sydney, Australia

Somerville, MA <-> Summerville, SC

Stanton, CA <-> Staunton, VA – yes, it is pronouced that way

Stirling, Scotland, UK <-> Sterling, CO

Strasbourg, France <-> Strasburg, PA – Thank you, Dan!

Uppsala, Sweden <-> Upsala, MN – Thank you, Dan!

Wenonah, NJ <-> Winona, MN or MS

Westboro, MO <-> Westborough, MA

Wooster, OH <-> Worcester, MA


  • Personal knowledge
  • 2021 Rand McNally Road Atlas
Posted in cities, fun, geography, history, Language, place names, toponymy | Tagged , , , , , , | 4 Comments

Working list – Favorite fictional spies of film and TV



James Bond – multiple actors (see image above) and multiple James Bond 007 films

Ethan Hunt – Tom Cruise in multiple Mission Impossible films

Jason Bourne – Matt Damon in multiple Bourne films

George Smiley – Gary Oldman in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy

Harry Tasker – Arnold Schwarzenegger in True Lies

Jack Ryan – multiple actors in multiple Jack Ryan films

Samir Horn – Don Cheadle in Traitor

Austin Powers – Mike Myers in multiple Austin Powers films

Alec Leamas – Richard Burton in The Spy Who Came in From the Cold

Roger Thornhill – Cary Grant in North by Northwest

Felix Leiter – multiple actors in multiple James Bond 007 films

Peter Joshua – Cary Grant in Charade

T.R. Devlin – Cary Grant in Notorious

Matt Helm – Dean Martin in multiple Matt Helm films

Derek Flint – James Coburn in multiple Derek Flint films

Agent K – Tommy Lee Jones in multiple Men in Black films

The Man from U.N.C.L.E. – Source:


Illya Kuryakin – David McCallum in The Man from U.N.C.L.E.

Napoleon Solo – Robert Vaughn in The Man from U.N.C.L.E.

James Phelps – Peter Graves in Mission Impossible

Sydney Bristow – Jennifer Garner in Alias

Penguins of Madagascar – cartoon by the same name

Maxwell Smart – Don Adams in Get Smart

Agent 99 – Barbara Feldon in Get Smart

Jack Bauer – Kiefer Sutherland in 24

Rollin Hand – Martin Landau in Mission Impossible

Barney Collier – Greg Morris in Mission Impossible

Cinnamon Carter – Barbara Bain in Mission Impossible

Boris BadenovRocky & Bullwinkle

Natasha FataleRocky & Bullwinkle

Fearless LeaderRocky & Bullwinkle

Posted in art, cartoons, entertainment, film, fun, history, movies, politics, spying, Television, video | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Ugly two-digit Interstate Highway segments and thoughts on how to improve them

The following list identifies some segments of two-digit Interstate Highways where the aesthetics along the freeway are far less than pleasing. The list represents segments where there is little to impress a traveler and may in fact repel them from returning. Issues that cause this may include, but not be limited to blight, decay, deteriorating structures (including the highway), disrepair, pollution, heavy industrialization, landfills, abandonment, odorous smells, trash, environmental damage, visual clutter (an abundance of signs, power lines, cell towers, etc.), and/or a general impression of decline.

  • I-37 in Texas from Up River Road to TX-286 (both in Corpus Christi)
  • I-55 in Missouri and Arkansas from I-57 to the Mississippi River Bridge at West Memphis, Arkansas
  • I-64/77 in West Virginia from the northern start of the WV Turnpike to Chelyan
  • I-55 in Illinois from the Mississippi River Bridge to I-70
  • I-55/70 in Illinois from I-70 to I-255
  • I-70 in Ohio from I-77 to the Ohio River Bridge at Wheeling, West Virginia
  • I-75 in Michigan from US 10 to the US 23 split south of Flint
  • I-75 in Michigan from the Ambassador Bridge to M-39
  • I-75 in Michigan and Ohio from I-275 (south of Detroit) to I-475 (north of Toledo)
  • I-76 in Philadelphia near the the Walt Whitman Bridge
  • I-80 in Illinois from I-294 to the Indiana state line
  • I-80 in Ohio and Pennsylvania from I-680 to I-376
  • I-80/94 in Indiana from the Illinois state line to I-90 just east of Gary
  • I-90 (Chicago Skyway) in Illinois from I-94 (Dan Ryan Expressway) to the Indiana state line
  • I-90 (Indiana Toll Road) in Indiana from East Chicago, Indiana to I-80/94 just east of Gary
  • I-95 in New Jersey from I-287 to I-80
  • I-95 in Pennsylvania from I-276 to the Betsy Ross Bridge
  • I-95 in Pennsylvania from I-476 to I-76

Granted, Interstate Highways are not necessarily meant to be beacons of beauty, but they also do not need to be blight corridors. In fact, freeways often travel through beautiful areas and serve as the introduction of many places to visitors.

Blighted segments are particularly harmful to a state’s image when they are at gateway location (shown above in italics), given the importance of first impressions. As a result; Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania all have their work cut out for them, if them wish to generate a more positive feeling towards those entering their state at a gateway location.

Some options to improve ugly Interstate Highway corridors could include:

  • Add landscaping, gardens, and architectural treatments along the highway itself.
  • Establish specific economic development incentives along these corridors.
  • Enact and/or enforce stricter environmental cleanup laws.
  • Enact and/or enforce stricter blight and zoning laws.
  • Accentuate positive community aspects along the corridor.
  • Add regular community pride and cleanup campaigns.
  • Offer incentives to restore or replace abandoned structures.
  • Maintain the highway itself and not let it fall into disrepair.
  • Lower the highway to below grade level to limit the view of surrounding areas.
  • In some urban instances where appropriate, convert the freeway back to the original grid pattern so the adjacent neighborhood(s) can heal.
Wolf Lake on the Indiana/Illinois border – Source:

An example of an on-going success story comes from Hammond, Indiana, which is tightly wedged in between Chicago’s south side neighborhoods and Gary. While the segments of I-90 on either side of the city are included on the list above, the portion passing through Hammond is not, due to the impressive efforts taking place there. Hammond has improved its image to those driving through the city on I-90 by adding the following:

Wolf Lake Boardwalk (2014) – Source:
Wolf Lake Pavilion – Source:
  • Adding an impressive network of interactive cycling and walking trails across the city, including adjacent to I-90 as it crosses Wolf Lake.
Map of Hammond’s trail network – Source:

Hammond, Indiana has admirably demonstrated that the aesthetics along a once-blighted Interstate Highway segment can be improved and enhanced. While these changes are pleasing to those traveling through the community, they are even more important for those living there 24/7/365. Hopefully, steps such as those taken in Hammond or suggested in the list above can help initiate a movement across the entire community, thereby benefiting all of those who reside there.

Posted in Active transportation, adaptive reuse, architecture, bicycling, Cars, cities, civics, culture, economic development, economic gardening, environment, Highway displacement, highways, historic preservation, infrastructure, land use, landscape architecture, logistics, Maps, marketing, nature, pictures, placemaking, planning, politics, pollution, recreation, revitalization, spatial design, sprawl, third places, tourism, Trade, transportation, Travel, urban design, urban planning, walking, water trails, zoning | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The global network of subsea digital communication cables and the coastal hub cities that stand to benefit from them

Despite the fanfare surrounding satellite networks, subsea cables still transmit 99 percent of all data between continents. Much like the interstate highway system, airline networks, and railways, undersea global communication cables form a hub and spoke system, albeit being somewhat curvilinear in places to skirt coastlines.


For those hub cities located where subsea cables come ashore (known as landing stations), the networks create a tremendous opportunity for becoming a recognized leader in digital data communications and storage. Major digital subsea cable landing hubs around the world include, but are not limited to:

  • Alexandria, Egypt
  • Bude, England, UK
  • Busan, South Korea
  • Fortaleza, Brazil
  • Marseille, France
  • Mumbai, India
  • New York City Region, USA
  • Singapore, Singapore
  • Southeast Florida (Miami Region), USA
  • Southern California (Los Angeles Region), USA
  • Sydney, Australia
  • Tokyo, Japan
Equinix’s 750,000 square foot data center in Miami – Source:

Some of these digital cable hubs have also become home to multiple data centers, while in one case (Bude, England, UK), the town is an important intelligence gathering and surveillance location utilizing access to both subsea cables and satellites. However, the most noteworthy and successful effort by a subsea cable hub city to become a major player in digital communications and storage has been Marseille, France.

Undersea cable landing station in Marseille – Source:

Marseille, France has 16 subsea cable networks coming ashore in the city and surrounding area, with more landing sites under development. Due to being an important hub for digital communications, Marseille has also become an important data center, with nine (9) facilities dotting the city (a tenth is under construction), including perhaps the most unique data center on the planet – one involving the adaption reuse of a 73,000 square foot World War II Nazi submarine bunker (see photo below).

Interxion MRS3 Data Centre in former submarine bunker – SOURCE:

Designed to shelter up to 20 U-boats from Allied air raids, the bunker was constructed with a six (6) meter thick concrete roof. That equates to a nearly 20 foot thick roof of solid concrete! This enormous structure sat incomplete and vacant for 75 years following German withdrawal from the city in 1944. It’s now the third data center owned by Interxion in the city and opened in 2020. A fourth Interxion data center currently under construction is adjacent to it (see photo below).

Interxion MRS4 Data Centre under construction in Marseille next to MRS3 – Source:

Located at the historic and natural seafaring crossroads of Europe, the Middle East, the Americas, Africa, and Asian-Pacific countries; Marseille has become a vital data hub with ready digital access via subsea cables to 4.5 billion people. The map provided below depicts the strategic importance of Marseille’s subsea cable network in relation to Europe, Asia and Africa – located in the upper left corner of the image.


In late 2017, Interxion cited three more reasons for Marseille’s explosive growth in digital data communications.

“Marseille operates in a deregulated market, enabling vibrant competition between service providers that can connect Marseille to other key European cities. International networks delivering capacity into Marseille can choose from over 30 backhaul providers all of whom have been enhancing their services from Marseille across Europe.

The presence of a carrier-neutral data centres. There are 5 leading content distribution networks, 4 Internet Exchanges and major cloud and content platforms present in Marseille. The city has therefore transformed from the purely transit location of 5 years ago into one where content is stored and exchanged between networks.

The final factor behind Marseille’s development is the common vision for Information Technology shared between national and local government authorities and IT companies in Marseille.”


Other cities around the globe are seeing the potential of cable landing locations and future data hubs as a terrific economic development engine. Fortaleza, Brazil is a strong contender in the digital communications marketplace, in part due to its strategic South Atlantic geographical location. Here in the United States, Virginia Beach, Virginia is actively marketing itself as a digital port, in part due to numerous military installations in the Tidewater area. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina is also pushing for a subsea cable landing site.

Gorgeous Marseille, France – Source:

Seaports were the original hubs of communications and trade between nations. Now, history has come full-circle, as coastal cities like Marseille, France are benefitting from their proximity to the sea where digital communication cables come ashore. In 2019, predicted the following coastal cities have potential to become important digital hubs by 2030:

“As new cables replace the old systems, we anticipate some shifts within the market in terms of the introduction of new subsea cable hubs and concentration points like Virginia Beach, Bordeaux, Genoa, and Guam.”

Those coastal cities noted above and others like Marseille and Fortaleza that act upon such an opportunity and successfully expand their digital footprint within the global economy will certainly be among the pantheon of urban winners in our data-driven future.


If you would like to learn more about some of the topics contained in this post, here are links to two (2) books available through*

*A small commission is earned from purchases that are made using the above links to Amazon. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.



Posted in adaptive reuse, Africa, architecture, Asia, business, cities, commerce, Communications, digital communications, distribution, ecommerce, economic development, economic gardening, economics, engineering, environment, Europe, futurism, geography, globalization, government, history, industry, infrastructure, internet, land use, logistics, Maps, marketing, nature, North America, Oceania, placemaking, planning, politics, Science, Social media, South America, spatial design, spying, Statistics, technology, topography, Trade, traffic, urban planning, video | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Working list – Favorite spy sagas based on true events

To this blog author, spy stories are among the most thrilling and intriguing literature that can be read. This is especially the case for those stories that are based on actual historic events. The working list below identifies my favorite books, movies, and mini-series that are based on real spy sagas – both those involving foreign adversaries and those detailing the actions of whistleblowers who reveal inappropriate spying and surveillance activities.

Source: clipart

While there is some artistic license often employed in movies and mini-series, the basis for the story is still true. Meanwhile, non-fiction and biographical books tend to delve into the actual nitty-gritty details of the spy’s life, their espionage endeavors, as well as their efforts to avoid being caught.


Not all of the spies from these stories sneak around foreign capitals in search of important secrets. In fact, quite a few lived in plain sight (Agent Sonya and An Impeccable Spy – Richard Sorge) or were average citizens who find themselves drawn into espionage by circumstances and/or personal beliefs/ideology (The Courier, Official Secrets, and Snowden). Some spies strived to break the enemy’s codes (The Imitation Game), some silently lurk under the sea (Blind Man’s Bluff), while others oversaw an entire spy network (Spymistress).

As more espionage-related books are read and films/mini-series are watched, this list will be updated. I hope you enjoy these amazing stories as much as I do. Any suggestions on other true spy accounts to read or watch are most welcome. Enjoy!

p.s. There will be a future post on favorite fictional spy sagas, as well.


*A small commission is earned from purchases that are made using the following links to Amazon. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.


Agent Sonya: Moscow’s Most Daring Wartime Spy (2020)

Link* – Agent Sonya

Blind Man’s Bluff: The Untold Story Of American Submarine Espionage (2000)

A Spy’s Guide to Santa Fe and Albuquerque (2011)

Link* – Spy’s Guide

An Impeccable Spy: Richard Sorge, Stalin’s Master Agent (2019)

Link* – Impeccable

Raven Rock: The Story of the U.S. Government’s Secret Plan to Save Itself–While the Rest of Us Die (2017)

Link* – Raven Rock

Codename: Hero: The True Story of Oleg Penkovsky and the Cold War’s Most Dangerous Operation (2012) – added 5/16/22

No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State (2014)

Link* – No Place to Hide

Spymistress: The True Story of the Greatest Female Secret Agent of World War II (2006)

Link* – Spymistress


The Lisbon Route: The Lisbon Route: Entry and Escape in Nazi Europe (2011)

Surrender on Demand (1997)

Iron Spy (2019)


The Courier (UK – 2021)

Link* – The Courier

The 12th Man (Norway -2017)

Link* – The 12th Man

Official Secrets (UK – 2019)

Link* – Official Secrets

The Imitation Game (UK – 2014)

Link* – Imitation Game

Operation Mincemeat (UK – 2022) – added 5/12/22

Bridge of Spies (2015)

Link* – Bridge of Spies

Snowden (2016)

Link* – Snowden

Argo (2012)

Link* – Argo


Jack Strong (Poland – 2014) – added 5/13/22

Red Joan (UK – 2019)

Female Agents (France – 2008) – added 5/17/22

Wasp Network (France – 2020) – added 5/21/22

Charlie Wilson’s War (2007) – added 5/6/22

Citizenfour (2014)

Wife of a Spy (Japan – 2021) – added 5/15/22

Syriana (2005)

The Spy Who Stole the Atom Bomb (2017)


The Spy (2019)


*A small commission is earned from purchases that are made using the above links to Amazon. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.

Posted in art, book reviews, books, cartoons, Communications, entertainment, government, historic preservation, history, literature, movies, politics, spying, technology, Television, theaters, writing | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

City names containing two or more first names

Below is a list of cities and towns in the USA and Canada that contain at least two (2) first names within the city/town’s name. Informal and formal variations of the same name, such as “Al” and “Alan,” “Rich” and “Richard,” and Liz/Beth and Elizabeth” are NOT counted as two separate names. Feel free to pass along any that have been missed – given the ever-widening range of names, there are certainly more. Enjoy!


Most common first names found in city names in the USA and Canada:

  1. Dale = 29
  2. Brook = 20
  3. Wes and Glen= 15
  4. Lyn  = 13
  5. Don = 11
  6. Ann/a and Cal = 7
  7. Andria and Rose = 5


  1. Alanreed, TX – Alan and Reed
  2. Alexandria, IN – Alex and Andria
  3. Alexandria, KY – Alex and Andria
  4. Alexandria, MN – Alex and Andria
  5. Alexandria, VA – Alex and Andria
  6. Allendale, MI – Allen and Dale
  7. Alfred, NY – Al and Fred
  8. Annada MO — Ann/a & Ada – Thank you, Dan!
  9. Annabella, UT – Ann/a and Bella
  10. Annandale, MN – Ann/a and Dale
  11. Annandale, VA – Ann/a and Dale
  12. Annalee Heights, VA – Ann/a and Lee
  13. Annfred WV — Ann & Fred – Thank you, Dan!
  14. Artanna OH — Art & Anna –Thank you, Dan!
  15. Benbrook, TX – Ben and Brook
  16. Bonnie Bell, CA – Bonnie and Bell
  17. Brookdale, CA – Brook and Dale
  18. Brookdale, MB, Canada – Brook and Dale
  19. Brookdale, SC – Brook and Dale
  20. Brooklyn, CT – Brook and Lyn
  21. Brooklyn, Il – Brook and Lyn
  22. Brooklyn, IN – Brook and Lyn
  23. Brooklyn, IA – Brook and Lyn
  24. Brooklyn, NY – Brook and Lyn
  25. Brooklyn, MI – Brook and Lyn
  26. Brooklyn, OH – Brook and Lyn
  27. Brooklyn, WI – Brook and Lyn
  28. Brooklyn Center, MN – Brook and Lyn
  29. Brooklyn Park, MD – Brook and Lyn
  30. Brooklyn Park, MN – Brook and Lyn
  31. Brooklyn Heights, OH – Brook and Lyn
  32. Brookneal, VA – Brook and Neal
  33. Caledon, ON, Canada – Cal and Don
  34. Caledonia, MI – Cal and Don
  35. Caledonia, MN – Cal and Don
  36. Caledonia, NY – Cal and Don
  37. Caledonia, ON, Canada – Cal and Don
  38. Caledonia, WI – Cal and Don
  39. Calgary, AB, Canada – Cal and Gary
  40. Cameron, LA – Cam and Ron
  41. Cameron, MO – Cam and Ron
  42. Cameron, TX – Cam and Ron
  43. Carlisle, PA – Carl and Lisle
  44. Chevy Chase, MD – Chevy and Chase
  45. Chevy Chase Heights, PA – Chevy and Chase
  46. Clair-Mel City, FL – Clair and Mel
  47. Clarendon Hills, IL – Clare and Don
  48. Clarkdale, GA – Clark and Dale
  49. Clemscott OK — Clem & Scott – Thank you, Dan!
  50. Darbydale, OH – Darby and Dale
  51. Evansdale, IA – Evan and Dale – added 5/21/22
  52. Evendale, OH – Eve and Dale
  53. Fernandina Beach, FL – Fern and Dina
  54. Ferndale, MI – Fern and Dale
  55. Ferndale, PA – Fern and Dale
  56. Forestdale, AL – Forest and Dale
  57. Glen Allen, VA – Glen and Allen
  58. Glendale, AZ – Glen and Dale
  59. Glendale, CA – Glen and Dale
  60. Glendale, MO – Glen and Dale
  61. Glendale, NJ – Glen and Dale
  62. Glendale, WI – Glen and Dale
  63. Glendale Heights, IL – Glen and Dale
  64. Glen Ellen, CA – Glen and Ellen
  65. Glen Ellyn, IL – Glen, Ellyn, and Lyn
  66. Glenn Dale, MD – Glenn and Dale
  67. Glendora, CA – Glen and Dora
  68. Glenwillow, OH – Glen and Willow
  69. Haltom City, TX – Hal and Tom
  70. Hazeldale, OR – Hazel and Dale
  71. Hazel Dell, WA – Hazel and Dell
  72. Homer Glen, Il – Homer and Glen
  73. Idalou TX — Ida & Lou – Thank you, Dan!
  74. Juliaetta ID — Julia & Etta – Thank you, Dan!
  75. Kennedale, TX – Ken and Dale
  76. Langdondale, PA – Lang, Don, and Dale
  77. Leon Valley, TX – Leon and Val
  78. Lillybrook, WV – Lilly and Brook
  79. London, KY – Lon and Don
  80. London, OH – Lon and Don
  81. London, ON, Canada – Lon and Don
  82. Londonderry, NH – Lon and Don
  83. Mary Esther FL — Mary and Esther – Thank you, Dan!
  84. Melvindale, MI – Mel/Melvin, and Dale
  85. New Carlisle, IN – Carl and Lisle
  86. New Carlisle, QC, Canada – Carl and Lisle
  87. New London, CT – Lon and Don
  88. River Forest, IL – River and Forest
  89. Rockdale, TX – Rock and Dale
  90. Rock Dell, MN – Rock and Dell
  91. Rocky River, OH – Rock/Rocky and River
  92. Rosedale, CA – Rose and Dale
  93. Rosedale, IN – Rose and Dale
  94. Rosedale, Louisiana – Rose and Dale
  95. Roseglen, ND – Rose and Glen
  96. Rosemary Beach, FL – Rose and Mary
  97. Ruthilda SK — Ruth & Hilda – Thank you, Dan!
  98. Scottsdale, PA – Scott and Dale
  99. Scottsdale, AZ – Scott and Dale
  100. Sheridan, IN – Sheri and Dan – added 5/20/22
  101. Sheridan, WY – Sheri and Dan – added 5/20/22
  102. St. Jean-sur Richelieu, QC, Canada – Jean and Rich
  103. Tiger Lily, CA -Tiger and Lily
  104. Toms River, NJ – Tom and River
  105. West Bend, WI -Wes and Ben
  106. West Bradenton, FL – Wes and Brad
  107. West Cape May, NJ – Wes and May
  108. West Carrollton, OH – Wes and Carroll
  109. Westbrook, CT -Wes and Brook
  110. Westchase, FL – Wes and Chase
  111. Westchester, FL – Wes and Chester
  112. Westchester, IL – Wes and Chester
  113. West Chester, OH – Wes and Chester
  114. West Chester, PA – Wes and Chester
  115. West Glens Falls, NY – Wes and Glen
  116. West Hazelton, PA – Wes and Hazel
  117. West Jefferson, OH – Wes, Jeff, and Jefferson
  118. West Melbourne, FL – Wes and Mel
  119. West Miami, FL – Wes and Mia
  120. Willow Bend, GA – Willow and Ben
  121. Willowbrook, IL – Willow and Brook
  122. Winona, MN – Win and Nona
  123. Winona, MO – Win and Nona
  124. Winona Lake, IN – Win and Nona


Posted in Canada, Cities, Communications, geography, history, Language, North America, place names, States, Statistics, toponymy | Tagged , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

Geography of underground co-location data centers

Schematic of the DEAC Grizinkalns Data Centre – Source:

The list below identifies underground data centers located around the globe that are designed to serve multiple tenants (co-location) versus solely one business or organization. Given the wide ranging of threats to data resources from climate change, cyber attacks, malware, rising seas, terrorism, ransomware, weather, and war; governments, businesses, financial institutions, and other organizations need to have safe and secure places to retain primary and/or backup data for their operations.

The Bunker 2 – Source:

Properly designed and situated, subterranean data centers offer a number of benefits compared to surface facilities particularly when it comes to climate, weather, terrorism, and war. If fact, the adaptive reuse of military-grade bunkers and abandoned mines have proven to be successful in many instances. Of the list provided below, eight (8) were originally bunkers. Furthermore, another nine (9) are located in former mines.

As can be seen from the list, the western half of Missouri and nearby parts of Kansas lead the way in the United States for locating underground data centers with seven (7) such facilities. Former underground limestone mines seem to be particularly well suited for data centers.

As always, any additions, suggestions, or corrections are most welcome. In the case of several underground data centers not included in the list below, information is unclear whether they were actually built or if they remain in operation. These include the Strataspace and Olive Mountain data centers in Kentucky and Dataville in Nova Scotia.

Gui’an Seven Star Data Center – Source:


Guizhou, China – Gui’an Seven Star Data Centre (2020) = 323,000 square feet


Pori, Finland – The Rock Data Centre (2014) = 91,500 square feet


Paris, France – Scaleway Data Centre = 21,500 square feet/85′ below ground


Afula, Israel – under development

Jerusalem, Israel – Oracle Data Centre (2021) = 460,000 square feet/164′ below ground

Petah Tikva, Israel – GTR Data Centre (2023) = 51,700 square feet


Iglesias, Sardinia, Italy – Digital Metalla Data Centre = under development


Amman, Jordan – The Bunker (2019) = 46,300 square feet/ 50′ below ground


Riga, Latvia – DEAC Grizinkalns Data Centre (2018) = 4,300 square feet/40′ below ground


Luxembourg City, Luxembourg – European Data Hub = 59,200 square feet/65′ under ground


Maloy, Norway – Lefdal Mine Data Centre (2016) = 1,290,000 square feet/75′ below ground

Stavanger, Norway – Green Mountain Data Centre DC-1 = 242,000 square feet


Stockholm, Sweden – Bahnhof Pionen Data Centre (2008) = 10,800 square feet/100′ below ground

Schematic of Fort Knox I and II – Source:


Lucerne, Switzerland – Datarock = 50′ below ground

Lucerne, Switzerland – EWL Data Centre (2020) = 18,300 square feet

Saanen-Gstaad, Switzerland – Mount 10 (Swiss Fort Knox I and II) = ?

Zurich, Switzerland – GIB Data Centre -8142 = ?

United Kingdom

Lincoln, England, UK – SmartBunker Data Centre (2000) = 30,000 square feet

London (Sandwich), England, UK – The Bunker 2/Sandwich Data Centre (2004) = 130,000 square feet – (former air radar station)

London (Thatcham), England, UK – The Bunker 1/Newbury Data Centre (1994) = ?

InforBunker diagram – Source:

United States

Branson, Missouri – The Mountain Data Center (2007) = 300,000 square feet/165′ below ground

Des Moines, Iowa – The InfoBunker (2006) – 65,000 square feet/six to 50′ below ground

Houston, Texas – The Bunker = 40,000 square feet

Kansas City, Missouri – Iron Mountain Data Center = 50,000 square feet and 110′ below ground

Kansas City, Missouri – SubTropolis/LightEdge Data Center = 60,000 square feet

Kansas City, Missouri – SubTropolis/SubTech Data Center = 40,000 square feet

Kansas City, Missouri – SubTropolis Data Center = 400,000 square feet

Kansas City (Lenexa, KS), Missouri – Cavern Technologies Data Center (2007) = 3,000,000 square feet/125′ below ground

Pittsburgh (Boyers), Pennsylvania – Iron Mountain WPA-1 Data Center = 130,000 square feet/220′ below ground

Springfield, Missouri – Bluebird Underground Data Center = 76,000 square feet/85′ below ground


Posted in adaptive reuse, architecture, atomic age, business, commerce, Communications, ecommerce, economic development, engineering, geography, Geology, government, history, infrastructure, internet, land use, logistics, military, Mining, planning, product design, spatial design, Statistics, technology, topography, tunnels, zoning | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Working list of continuous flow/displaced left-turn intersections in the USA

US 550 & NM 528 in Bernalillo, NM- Source:

Also known as a displaced left-turn intersection, these intersections are meant to improve traffic flow, especially for intersections with busy left turns. That being said, continuous flow seems to be a misnomer, as in most, if not all of the cases, none of the traffic in the intersection is “continuously” flowing. As a result, “displaced left-turn” or “crossover left-turn” would appear to be a more accurate term.


Regardless on the name, there are a number of benefits associated with such a design. These include:

  • Reduced accidents
  • Lower construction cost versus a complete rebuild
  • Can take up less land area than other options
  • Increased vehicle capacity for both through and left-turn traffic
  • Reduced wait times which can also improve energy efficiency

On the downside, there will likely be an adjustment period for drivers that can take awhile. In the interim there can be confusion, frustration, and some accidents resulting from the new design. Given that going against the flow can be counter-intuitive, it is imperative that the signage be clear and concise when the intersection is reopened to help drivers adjust. Public notification campaigns on and through local media and online can be helpful too.


The list below identifies those continuous flow intersections constructed in the United States since the first one was completed in the mid-1990s. Such intersections can be constructed to improve traffic flow in one direction or up to all four directions. To date, the only four-leg continuous flow intersection is located at UT 154 & 4100 South in West Valley City, Utah. In addition, two examples listed below have since been converted into grade-separated interchanges – they are included for informational purposes.

Any updates, additions, corrections, or suggestions are most welcome.


  • NJ 168 & Nicholson Road – Philadelphia area (Audubon), NJ – one-leg


  • William Floyd Parkway & Dowling College – New York City (Shirley), NY – one-leg


  • MD 210 & MD 228 – Washington, DC area – (Accokeek), MD – one-leg


  • US 61 (Airline Highway) & LA 3246 – Baton Rouge, LA – two-leg
  • UT 154 & UT 173 – Salt Lake City (Taylorsville), UT (since converted to a grade-separated interchange)
  • UT 154 & 4700 South – Salt Lake City (Taylorsville), UT – two-leg


  • MO 30 & Summit Drive/Gravois Bluffs Boulevard – St. Louis (Fenton), MO – two-leg
  • UT 154 & 3500 South – Salt Lake City (West Valley City), UT – two-leg
  • UT 154 & 4100 South – Salt Lake City (West Valley City), UT – four-leg
  • UT 154 & 3100 South – Salt Lake City (West Valley City), UT – two-leg


  • OH 741 & Miamisburg-Springboro Road/Austin Boulevard – Dayton (Miami Township), OH – two-leg


  • US 167 & Camellia Boulevard – Lafayette, LA – one-leg
  • US 61 & Junkin Drive – Natchez, MS – one-leg


  • US 34 & Madison Avenue – Loveland, CO – two-leg
  • UT 154 & 7000 South – Salt Lake City (West Jordan), UT – two-leg (since converted to a grade separated interchange)
  • UT 154 & 6200 South – Salt Lake City (Taylorsville), UT – two-leg


  • Redwood Road & 5400 South – Salt Lake City (Taylorsville), UT – two-leg


  • University Parkway & Sandhill Road – Provo (Orem), UT – two-leg


  • UT 154 & 13400 South – Salt Lake City (Riverton), UT – two-leg


  • US 550 & US 160 – Durango, CO – one-leg
  • MD 200 & US 1 – Washington, DC area (Laurel, MD) – one-leg


  • MS 6 & Jackson Avenue – Oxford, MS – one-leg


  • Quincy Avenue & Gun Club Road – Denver (Aurora), CO – two-leg
  • RM 1431 & Ronald Reagan Boulevard/Parmer Lane – Austin (Cedar Park), TX – two-leg
  • I-35 Frontage Road & Loop 82 – San Marcos, TX – one-leg
  • I-35 Frontage Road & TX 80 – San Marcos, TX – two-leg


  • Woodmen Road & Union Boulevard – Colorado Springs, CO – two-leg
  • US 19/GA 400 & GA 53 – Atlanta (Dawsonville), GA – two-leg
  • OH 125 & Five Mile Road – Cincinnati (Anderson Township), OH – two-leg


  • Military Highway & Northampton Boulevard – Norfolk, VA – two-leg


  • FL 82 & Daniels Parkway/Gunnery Road – Fort Myers, FL – two-leg
  • US 78/GA 10 & GA 124 – Atlanta (Snellville), GA – one-leg
  • NC 16 & Mt. Holly-Huntersville Road – Charlotte, NC – two-leg
  • Loop 1604 & Bandera Road – San Antonio, TX – two-leg
  • VA 190 & Indian River Road – Norfolk (Virginia Beach), VA – two-leg


  • Old US 56 & Lone Elm Road – Kansas City (Olathe), KS – two-leg
  • US 550 & NM 528 – Albuquerque (Bernalillo), NM – two-leg


  • US 85 & Highlands Ranch Parkway – Denver (Highlands Ranch), CO


  • Wadsworth & 38th Avenue – Denver (Wheat Ridge), CO
  • Wadsworth & 44th Avenue – Denver (Wheat Ridge), CO
  • GA 54 & GA 74 – Atlanta (Peachtree City), GA (2023/24)
  • IN 62 & Epworth Road – Evansville (Newburgh), IN
  • US 31 & Thompson Road – Indianapolis, IN two-leg (2022) – added 4/30/22
  • I-35 & Westinghouse Road – Austin, TX
  • Loop 1604 & Culebra Rd – San Antonio, TX
  • I-410 & WW White Rd/Cornerway Blvd – San Antonio, TX
  • US 281 & Basse Rd – San Antonio, TX
  • I-35 & FM 306 – San Antonio, TX


Posted in Cars, cities, commerce, distribution, engineering, geography, government, health, highways, history, infrastructure, land use, logistics, Maps, pictures, planning, product design, Statistics, Trade, traffic, transportation, Travel, urban planning | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Classic cartoon and comic strip rivals/adversaries

  • Archie vs. Reggie
  • Batman vs. Joker, Penguin, Riddler, Catwoman, and other villains
  • Buck Rogers vs. Killer Kane
  • Bugs Bunny vs. Daffy Duck
  • Bugs Bunny vs. Elmer Fudd
  • Bugs Bunny vs. Yosemite Sam
  • Dagwood vs. Mr. Dithers
  • Dexter vs. Susan “Mandark” Astronomanov
  • Dilbert vs. Pointy-haired Boss
  • Dudley Do-Right vs. Snidely Whiplash
  • Fred Flintstone vs. Mr. Slate
  • George Jetson vs. Mr. Spacely
  • George of the Jungle vs. Lyle Van de Groot
  • Homer Simpson vs. Mr. Burns
  • Inspector Gadget vs. Dr. Claw
  • Jerry vs. Tom
  • Jimmy Neutron vs. Professor Finbarr Calamitous
  • Jonny Quest vs. Dr. Zin and other villains
  • Mighty Mouse vs. Oil Can Harry
  • Penelope Pitstop vs. Sylvester Sneekly (the Hooded Claw)
  • Pink Panther vs. The Inspector
  • Pink Panther vs. The Little Man
  • Pixie/Dixie vs. Mr. Jinks
  • Popeye vs. Bluto
  • Roadrunner vs. Wile E. Coyote
  • Rocky/Bullwinkle vs. Boris/Natasha
  • Roger Ramjet vs. Noodles Romanoff
  • Smurfs vs. Gargamel
  • Snoopy vs. The Red Baron
  • Spiderman vs. numerous villains
  • SpongeBob Squarepants vs. Plankton
  • Spy vs. Spy (see image at top of post)
  • Superman vs. Lex Luther and numerous other villains
  • Tennessee Tuxedo vs. Stanley Livingston
  • Tommy Pickles vs. Angelica Pickles
  • Tom Slick vs. Baron Otto Matic
  • Top Cat vs. Officer Dribble
  • Tweety Bird vs. Sylvester the Cat
  • Underdog vs. Riff Raff
  • Underdog vs. Simon Bar Sinister
  • Wally Gator vs. Mr. Twiddle
  • Woody Woodpecker vs. Buzz Buzzard
  • Yogi Bear vs. Ranger Smith


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